Key references for Get Educated!

The Female Athlete Triad

Beals, K. A., & Manore, M. M. (2002). Disorders of the female athlete triad among collegiate athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, 12(3), 281 – 293.

Nattiv, A., Loucks, A. B., Manore, M. M., Sanborn, C. F., Sundgot-Borgen, J., & Warren, M., P. (2007). The Female Athlete Triad. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(10), 1867-1882.

Torstveit, M. K., & Sundgot-Borgen, J. (2005). The Female Athlete Triad exists in both elite athletes and controls. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise,37(9), 1449-1459.

Wheatley, S., Khan, S., Székely, A., Naughton, D., & Petróczi, A. (2012). Expanding the Female Athlete Triad concept to address a public health issue. Performance Enhancement and Health

Williams, N., & De Souza, M. J. (2006). Female Athlete Triad errors and misunderstandings. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 5, 1021.

 

Refuel for Life: The Importance of Energy Availability

De Souza, M. J., Lee, D. K., VanHeest, J. L., Scheid, J. L., West, S. L., & Williams, N. I. (2007). Severity of energy-related menstrual disturbances increases in proportion to indices of energy conservation in exercising women. Fertility and Sterility, 88(4), 971-975.

Loucks, A. B., Kiens, B., & Wright, H. H. (2011). Energy availability in athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(sup1), S7-S15.

Myerson, M., Gutin, B., Warren, M. P., May, M. T., Contento, I., Lee, M., et al. (1991). Resting metabolic rate and energy balance in amenorrheic and eumenorrheic runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 23(1), 15-22.

Wilmore, J. H., Wambsgans, K. C., Brenner, M., Broeder, C. E., Paijmans, I., Volpe, J. A., & Wilmore, K. M. (1992). Is there energy conservation in amenorrheic compared with eumenorrheic distance runners? Journal of Applied Physiology, 72(1), 15-22.

Loucks, A. B., & Thuma, J. R. (2003). Luteinizing hormone pulsatility is disrupted at a threshold of energy availability in regularly menstruating women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 88(1), 297-311.

Loucks, A. B., Verdun, M., & Heath, E. M. (1998). Low energy availability, not stress of exercise, alters LH pulsatility in exercising women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 84(1), 37-46.

O’Donnell, E., Harvey, P.J., De Souza, M. J. (2009). Relationships between vascular resistance and energy deficiency, nutritional status and oxidative stress in estrogen deficient physically active women. Clinical Endocrinology, 7, 294–302.

Scheid, J., & De Souza, M. J. (2010). Menstrual irregularities and energy deficiency in physically active women: The role of Ghrelin, PYY and Adipocytokines. Medicine and Sport Science, 55, 82-102.

Vescoui, J., Scheid, J., Hontscharuk, R., & De Souza, M. J. (2008). Cognitive dietary retraint: Impact on bone, menstrual and metabolic status in young women. Physiology and Behavior, 95(1-2), 48-55.

Williams, N. I., Helmreich, D. L., Parfitt, D. B., Caston-Balderrama, A., & Cameron, J. L. (2001). Evidence for a causal role of low energy availability in the induction of menstrual cycle disturbances during strenuous exercise training. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 86(11), 5184-5193.

 

Menstrual Function

De Souza, M.J., Toombs, R.J., Scheid, J.L., O’Donnell, E., West, S.L., & Williams, N.I. (2010). High prevalence of subtle and severe menstrual disturbances in exercising women: Confirmation using daily hormone measures. Reproductive Endocrinology, 25(2), 491-503.

De Souza, M.J., Miller, B.E., Loucks, A.B., Luciano, A.A., Pescatello, L.S., Campbell, C.G., & Lasley, B.L. (1998). High frequency of luteal phase deficiency and anovulation in recreational women runners: blunted elevation in follicle-stimulating hormone observed during lutealfollicular transition. Journal for Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 83, 4220 – 4232.

Dusek, T. (2001). Influence of high intensity training on menstrual cycle disorders in athletes. Croatian Medical Journal, 42(1), 79-82.

Harber, V. (2011). The young female athlete: Using the menstrual cycle as a navigational beacon for healthy development. Canadian Journal for Women in Coaching, 11(3), 1-11.

Loucks, A. B., Mortola, J. F., Girton, L., & Yen, S. S. C. (1989). Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes in athletic women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 68(2), 402-411.

Redman, L. M., & Loucks, A. B. (2005). Menstrual disorders in athletes. Sports Medicine, 35, 747-755.

Rickenlund, A., Eriksson, M. J., Schenck-Gustafsson, K., & Hirschberg, A. L. (2005). Amenorrhea in female athletes is associated with endothelial dysfunction and unfavorable lipid profile. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90(3), 1354-1359.

Warren, M. P. & Perlroth, N. (2001). Hormones and sport: The effects of intense exercise on the female reproductive system. Journal of Endocrinology, 170, 3-11.

 

Bone Health

Ackerman, K. E., Nazem, T., Chapko, D., Russell, M., Mendes, N., Taylor, A. P., et al. (2011). Bone microarchitecture is impaired in adolescent amenorrheic athletes compared with eumenorrheic athletes and nonathletic controls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 96(10), 3123 – 3133.

Christo, K., Prabhakaran, R., Lamparello, B., Cord, J., Miller, K. K., Goldstein, M. A., et al. (2008). Bone metabolism in adolescent athletes with amenorrhea, athletes with eumenorrhea and control subjects. Pediatrics, 121(6), 1127-1136.

Cobb, K. L., Bachrach, L. K., Sowers, M., Nieves, J., Greendale, G. A., Kent, K. K., et al. (2007). The effect of oral contraceptives on bone mass and stress fractures in female runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(9), 1464-1473.

De Souza, M.J., West, S.L., Jamal, S.A., Hawker, G.A., Gundberg, C.M., & Williams, N.I. (2008). The presence of both an energy deficiency and estrogen deficiency exacerbate alterations of bone metabolism in exercising women. Bone, 43, 140-148.

Ducher, G., Turner, A. I., Kukuljan, S., Pantano, K. J., Carlson, J. L., Williams, N. I., & De Souza, M. J. (2011). Obstacles in the optimization of bone health outcomes in the Female Athlete Triad. Sports Medicine, 41(7), 587-607.

Nichols, D. L., Sanborn, C. F., & Essery, E. V. (2007). Bone density and young athletic women: An update. Sports Medicine, 37(11), 1001-1014.

  

Cardiovascular Health

O’Donnell, E., & De Souza, M. (2004). The cardiovascular effects of chronic hypoestrogenism in amenorrhoeic athletes: A critical review. Sports Medicine, 34(9), 601-627.

O’Donnell, E., Goodman, J.M., & Harvey, P.J. (2011). Clinical Review: Cardiovascular consequences of ovarian disruption: A focus on functional hypothalamic amenorrhea in physically active. Journal of Clinical Endocrinological Metabolism, 96(12), 3638-48.

Rickenlund, A., Eriksson, M. J., Schenck-Gustafsson, K., & Hirschberg, A. L. (2005). Amenorrhea in female athletes is associated with endothelial dysfunction and unfavorable lipid profile. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90(3), 1354-1359.

 

The Oral Contraceptive Pill

Cobb, K. L., Bachrach, L. K., Sowers, M., Nieves, J., Greendale, G. A., Kent, K. K., et al. (2007). The effect of oral contraceptives on bone mass and stress fractures in female runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(9), 1464-1473.

 

Socio-Psychological Considerations

Ackard, D., Brehm, B.J., Steffen, J. (2002). Exercise and eating disorders in college-aged women: Profiling excessive exercises. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 10(1), 31-47.

Byrne, S., & McLean, N. (2002). Elite athletes: Effects of the pressure to be thin. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 5(2), 80-94. 

Chapman, G.E. (1997). Making weight: Lightweight rowing, technologies of power, and technologies of self. Sociology of Sport Journal, 14, 205-223.

Cockerill, I., Nevill, A., & Byrne, N. (1992). Mood, mileage and the menstrual cycle. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 26(3), 145-150.

De Souza, M. J., Hontscharuk, R., Olmsted, M., Kerr, G., & Williams, N. (2006). Drive for thinness score is a proxy indicator of energy deficiency in exercising women. Appetite, 48(3), 359-367.

Duncan, M. C. (1994). The politics of women’s body images and practices: Foucault, the Panopticon and Shape Magazine. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 18(1), 48-65. 

Dworkin, S.L., & Wachs, F.L. (2009). Body Panic: Gender, Health and the Selling of Fitness. New York: New York University Press.

Harrison, K. (2000). The body electric: thin-ideal media and eating disorders in adolescents. Journal of Communication, 50(3), 119-143.

Hermal Shroff, et. al., (2006). Features associated with excessive exercise in women with eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39(6), 454-461.

Kennedy, E. & Markula, P. (Eds.) (2011). Women and Exercise: The Body, Health and Consumerism. Routledge: London. 

Kennedy, E. & Pappa, E. (2011). Love your body? The discursive construction of exercise in women’s lifestyle and fitness magazines. In E. Kennedy & P. Markula (Eds.), Women and Exercise: The Body, Health and Consumerism (pp. 29-43). Routledge: London.

McDermott, L. (2011). “Doing something that’s good for me”: Exploring intersections of physical activity and health. In E. Kennedy & P. Markula (Eds.), Women and Exercise: The Body, Health and Consumerism (pp. 197-226). Routledge: London.

Maguire, J. & Mansfield, L. (1998). ‘No-body is perfect’: Women, aerobics, and the body beautiful. Sociology of Sport Journal, 15, 109-137.

Martinsen, M., Bratland-Sanda, S., Eriksson, A. K., & Sundgot-Borgen, J. (2010). Dieting to win or to be thin? A study of dieting and disordered eating among adolescent elite athletes and non-athlete controls. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(1), 70-76.

Mansfield, L. (2011). Fit, fat and feminine? The stigmatization of fat women in fitness gyms. In E. Kennedy & P. Markula (Eds.), Women and Exercise: The Body, Health and Consumerism (pp. 81-100). Routledge: London.

Rich, E. Evans, J., & De Pian, L. (2011). Obesity, body pedagogies and young women’s engagement with exercise. In E. Kennedy & P. Markula (Eds.), Women and Exercise: The Body, Health and Consumerism (pp. 138-158). Routledge: London.

Staurowsky, E. J., DeSouza, M.J., Ducher, G., Gentner, G., Miller, K. E., Shakib, S., Theberge, N. & Williams, N. (2009). Her Life Depends On It II. East Meadow, New York: Women’s Sport Foundation.

Terry, A., Szabo, A., Griffiths, M. (2004). The exercise addiction inventory: A new brief screening tool. Addiction Research and Theory, 12(5), 489-499.